Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Ways to Estimate the Direct and Indirect Costs and Benefits of the Key Risk Management Decisions Free Essay Example, 1500 words

In this age of competitiveness, reputation and sustainability are two essential requirements of an organization operating in domestic or entering a new market. This is because; it takes a huge time-span for an organization to develop its reputation and brand image within the minds of its target customers. But, it might get destroyed just within some minutes due to worse quality of products or high environmental impact. Therefore, in order to save the organization from such types of risks, high level of investment might be done in selecting the raw material suppliers and the ingredients used. Along with this, the organization might also invest high costs at the time of selecting inventive machines to reduce environmental impacts. This might prove effective in enhancing the corporate social responsibility (CSR) of the organization thereby amplifying its reputation and brand image as well in the foreign market. Side by side, due to high loyalty, the range of customers might get enhance d thereby reducing the fear of new entrants (Globe Business Publishing Ltd, 2013). Other than this, varied types of training programs might also be implemented within the organization, so as to enhance the inner skills and talents of the employees to invent new product lines. We will write a custom essay sample on The Ways to Estimate the Direct and Indirect Costs and Benefits of the Key Risk Management Decisions or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page 78-89).

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Impact Of Social Networking On Social Media - 1320 Words

Impact of Social Networking Crimes Divya Joshi, Hepi Suthar Students At Gujarat Forensic Sciences University Gandhinagar, India Abstract Social networking on social media websites involves the use of the internet to connect users with their friends, family and acquaintances. Social media websites are not necessarily about meeting new people online, although this does happen. This online social network is useful for spreading information, pictures and videos and generally staying in touch with people you wouldn t normally get to interact with all the time. Social Network is now available as application which is used in Smartphone so people now easily connected and share information, pictures, videos etc. using whatsApp, hike, Facebook, hangout, etc.In this paper, create an invisible iplogger which is sending with a message using the different social networking apps and get the IP address of the receiver device. Key words: Social Networking crimes, users safety, IP Address, Geo Location, I. Introduction A social networking service is an internet based service, platform, or a site that focuses on facilitating the building of social networks or social relationships among people who, for example, share interests, activities, backgrounds, or real-life relations. social network service consists of a representative of each user (often a profile), his/her social links, and a variety of additional services. Social media is an internet-based form of communication. Social mediaShow MoreRelatedThe Negative Impact of Social Media/Networking on Today’s Society2211 Words   |  9 Pagesnegative influence on society and individuals. To me, social media has created a new form of bullying, stereotyping, and racism. Along with the overuse of the internet, giving social media more authority, where it is able to expand in form. And last but not least, the way people have taken something that started out constructive, and mutated it into something that can be so negative. Some days when I sit a nd look at how the world is so reliant on media outlets and the opinions of others it disturbs meRead MorePositive Impact Of Social Media Essay821 Words   |  4 Pagesit is today through social networking. According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary, the phrase â€Å"social media† refers to â€Å"forms of electronic communication through which users create online communities in order to share information, ideas, and other content† (687). Information is readily available at one’s fingertips at any given moment. Social networking has evolved into one of the most common forms of communication since the launching of some of the earliest social networking sites, including ClassmatesRead MoreSocial Media And Its Impact On Society1563 Words   |  7 PagesSocial media has consumed our society. 47% of American adults used social networking sites in 2011 like Facebook, Myspace, and Twitter; up from 26% in 2008(quoted from the aspects of social media both h ave a positive and negative impact on life. Social networking sites promote interaction with distant family and friends. Social networking sites can demonstrate opportunities to strengthen existing relationships and to develop new friendships as well. The downfall of social media sitesRead MoreThe Impact of Social Media on Youth and Adults1646 Words   |  7 Pagesdiscussed Social networks like Facebook, Myspace and Twitter allow individuals to connect with anyone from coworkers to former classmates. The accessibility of these connections allow for individuals to feel easily connected to a larger community, but they have downsides. From false senses of connection, to data pervasiveness ,social networking is something that effects all groups within our culture to the point where we will have to decide if it is benefical or harful to the indivudal. Impacts of SocialRead MoreLiterature Review : A Research Essay1741 Words   |  7 PagesDevelopments and Social Networking Sites When Hartshorne, Ajjan, and Cao (2016) conducted their study, they observed that there has been a significant increase in the number of social networking websites today. Indeed, Jacobsen and Forste (2011) argue that social networking websites have become an international phenomenon in recent years, with many individuals, especially teens and young adults becoming obsessed and addicted to this relatively new sensation. Teenagers and young adults use these social networkingRead MoreAs The World Is Growing, The Social Media Network Is Growing1721 Words   |  7 Pagesworld is growing, the social media network is growing vastly and rapidly as well. We have various social media sites present in the world among which some of the widely used are Facebook, Instagram, YouTube and Twitter. Similarly, if we investigate, there would more other social media sites that the people have been using in their daily life. Social networking sites which are part of social media are playing a very vital role for the companies and their growth. Social networking sites are helping theRead MoreSociology Paper-Social Medias Impact on Society1480 Words   |  6 PagesSSC190 Final Research Paper Extended Due Date: Aug. 5th, 2013 5.   Pages 443, 445, text, social movements. Write about Facebook, other social networking sites and their impact on society.(good and bad) Throughout history we have gone through multiple revolutions, like the Agricultural Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and now the Knowledge or Information Revolution. But has the Knowledge Revolution paved the way for another revolution? It seems, more now than ever, that we are in a CommunicationRead MoreThe Effects Of Social Networking On Society1317 Words   |  6 PagesThe Effects of Social Networking Intro Over half of the world uses the internet. 2.2 billion people actively use any kind of social networking. There were 176 million new users of social media just last year (Regan 1). With the influence of so many people a pressing question: Is the impact of social media harmful or beneficial in its effects? Social networking is one of the biggest reports of online traffic. So, if so many people are using these networking sites, what are the effects on us? The â€Å"first†Read MoreThe Negative Impact Of Social Media852 Words   |  4 PagesThe Negative Impact of Social Media According to the Pew Research Center, â€Å"41% of social media-users have experienced at least one negative outcome as a result of using a social networking site.† In this article, Norton uses logos, pathos, and ethos to explain his standpoint to his audience. Logos are used when Norton brings up the legal issues of social media such as privacy concerns. Bringing the reader into Norton’s own personal experiences of abuse and name-calling uses pathos. Finally, ethosRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effects On Society1359 Words   |  6 PagesPeople may say social media is good for you but is it really? Everyday, everywhere I always see people on social media calling people bad names, not being able to communicate face to face with each other. Social media, social media, social media†¦ oh what is has done to the world, so many students grades have dropped, criminals PROMOTE crimes. Ultimately, what is at stake here is social media will one day take over the world. Peo ple’s safety will be in danger, crimes will increase, people will get

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Essay on Flickr, Mediafire, Instagram and Shutterfly Example For Students

Essay on Flickr, Mediafire, Instagram and Shutterfly Flickr is an image and file hosting site created by Ludicorp in 2004, a Vancouver-based company founded by Stewart Butterfield and Caterina Fakeand. The company was later acquired by Yahoo in 2005. It is a popular site used by bloggers, photo researchers, and the online communities in general to share, post, customize, and store personal photographs. There are three types of accounts that users can sign up for using Flicker. When applying for the basic version of the service, there is no cost. This free version of Flickr allows users to upload up to one terabyte of data through their entire life of using an account. The one terabyte, however, is limited to 200MB per photo and 1GB per video. Videos, fortunately, can be uploaded with a maximum resolution of 1080p. With 1080p resolution, videos come out clear, bright, and vivid. In the other hand, there is the Ad free option to the service. The Ad free choice allows subscribers to avoid advertisement for an annual fee. This means that there will be no annoying advertisements when users try to upload, view, or share content. This benefit costs a low fee of $49.99 a year and receives all the benefits of a free account. Fortunately, Flickr has a variety of options for a user. One of these options allows users to make their content private. The feature enables people to prioritize what they want to allows the public and friends to see. Another feature is the ability to edit uploaded photos. Photos can be edited with easy to use tools at a novice scale. The tool is not as great as professional software like Photoshop, but it still provides a cool and useful feature for account holders. In conclusion Flicker is an excellent site that was acquired by Yahoo. It offers a variety of services that gives users the ability to not only enhance their photographs, but also share them. The site is great for people who want to show off their family, vacation, or random photos. It is an easy and fun web page to use with loads of cloud space that provides storage of up to 1TB of tolerable content. Mediafire is a file hosting and sharing website that has become very popular in the past couple of years. Mediafire uses cloud storage, as defined by Technopedia, â€Å"Cloud storage is a cloud computing model in which data is stored on remote servers accessed from the Internet, or cloud. It is maintained, operated and managed by a cloud storage service provider on a storage servers that are built on virtualization techniques† (â€Å"Cloud storage,†). Mediafire was founded in August 2006 by CEO Derek Labian and other entrepreneurs. They decided to develop the website because they were frustrated with having to upload large data files into e-mails or FTPS in order to share data with others. Most of the time, the e-mails people would send to others would take a long time to arrive. Another issue before cloud technology was that in some cases the e-mails sent with data, never arrived and the data would be deleted. It was a very frustrating time for people who enjoyed or wo rked sharing media through the internet. Presently, file sharing has changed and sites like Mediafire are evolving rapidly. Using Mediafire, you can store, organize, and share data via the internet to popular social networks like Facebook or Twitter. Mediafire also has a mobile application which allows you to view and share documents. One of the newest changes Mediafire has introduced is Mediafire Desktop (beta). This can be downloaded straight from the website. One of the most convenient features of this new software is the ability to view and share data without having to log into Mediafire. Currently, Mediafire Desktop is still in beta testing; therefore it is still undergoing some minor changes before it is fully released. Data that has been stored using Mediafire can be accessed by creating a username and password on the website. Mediafire has a range of plans that you can choose from. The popular one between users is the basic plan which offers 10 GB of memory, free of cost. One of the problems many people encounter with this plan is that it has advertisements. Mediafire offers ways to gain free storage by simply downloading the mobile application or the desktop version. As well as, referring friends to Mediafire and sharing the website to friends on social networks. One of the downfalls with the free version as explained in an article is â€Å"with Mediafire you can only upload a file as large as 200mb if you are a free user. While downloading, you can only download individual files and not the entire folder† (Jariwala, 2013). This shows how the free version is not suitable for everyone; it really depends on how you are planning to use MediafFire. The following plan is the pro plan, which offers memory from 100 GB, 200 GB, or 500 GB. You can choose to pay monthly or yearly. The yearly prices range from $24.99 to $99.99. The pro plans are ad free and offer recommendations on which plan to choose depending on what you will store. The final plan is the premium plan which is marketed for businesses but can also be purchased by anyone. This plan includes multiple user accounts, customizable branding, and a detailed security log. Storage starts from 1 TB to 100 TB and prices range from $64.99 to $3,749.99 quarterly. For the average person it may seem like much but to a large business this space is adequate. As explained in an article about Mediafire for business use, â€Å"Business users will like that Mediafire supports custom branding, so you can put your own logo on the file site, and you can incorporate the Filedrop widget on to your company Web page. The professional and business sites also allow you to upload an entire folder , which is something you cant do with the free version† (Network World, 2013). As explained, Mediafire has many features that make it appealing to people with businesses. Currently, it is working on new ways to promote cloud storage, especially safe cloud storage. In my belief, this is only the beginning of Mediafire as a cloud storage server; there are still many changes to this new technology. Instagram is one of the 4 different file hosting and sharing sites used by millions of people all over the world. Before Instagram was created, it started out as an HTML5 mobile web app called Burbn. It was originally created by Kevin Systrom while he was still working at Nextstop. The Burn starts off as a foursquare check in application that Kavin Systrom decided to show to a couple of friends. He then took it upon himself to go on his own and create his own company, which is when his co-founder Mike Krieger came into the picture. By then the Burn application was more than just for check-ins it allowed people to make plans, earn some kinds of point for being with friends, and were able to post pictures etc. After a while both decided to just focus on the photo part of the application that leads quickly to the creation of Instagram. Social Media Has a Negative Effect on Body Image and Self Esteem EssayShutterfly is connected with Facebook, Twitter, Google+, Pinterest, blogs and community forums. The app is available through Google Play and iTunes. Shutterfly also has a channel available through Roku, a â€Å"little box† that streams directly from the Internet. Testimonials, advertisements, and how-to videos are displayed on Shutterfly’s YouTube account. Shutterfly users can easily upload via desktop, tablet, smartphone, Picasa, Adobe Photoshop, share sites, and social networks. In addition, friends and family are able to view photos, videos and ideograms without an account so memories can be shared via these social networks, email, and share sites. Share sites are free, public or private websites to share photos and videos with friends, family or groups. Creators have the option of displaying their photos with designs for every style and occasion. Shutterfly features the following share site designs: family, sports teams, classroom, events celebrations, baby, clubs groups, wedding, travel, photo gallery, and sports leagues clubs. The creator can choose from these exclusive templates or customize it. There are no restrictions to only sharing photos and videos; messages, updates, calendars, pills, team rosters, forums and more can be shared. The incentive for generating a share site is to receive 30 free prints. Along with photo books, cards, gifts, prints and share sites, calendars and home decor also retain the ability to be individualized. Orders are provided with in-detail descriptions and, if needed, customer service is only a click or phone call away. Costs may vary due to the fluctuating prices amidst products and customization. Special offers, promotions and saving plans are available directly on their website to help reduce prices. Gift certificates can invest $10 to $100; they are available in five denominations. They never expire and can be delivered traditionally or by email. Unfortunately, gift certificates cannot be processed on items through the iPhone app. Bibliography 9 free personal clouds offer something for everyone. (2013). Network World (Online), Retrieved from Cloud storage. (n.d.). Retrieved from Jariwala, D. (2013, octorber 21). 12 personl cloud storage services to choose from. Retrieved from Express Uploader The fastest way to upload. (n.d.). Shutterfly. Retrieved December 3, 2013, from Free Online Photo Sharing | Share Pictures Instantly | Shutterfly. (n.d.). Free Online Photo Sharing | Share Pictures Instantly | Shutterfly. Retrieved December 3, 2013, from Gift Certificates. (n.d.). Shutterfly , Online Gift Certificate and Email Gift Certificate. Retrieved December 3, 2013, from Occasions. (n.d.). Photo Books, Holiday Cards, Photo Cards, Birth Announcements, Photo Printing. Retrieved December 3, 2013, from Photo Books. (n.d.). , Photo Albums, Create a Photo Book, Personalized Photo Album. Retrieved December 3, 2013, from Photo Books, Holiday Cards, Photo Cards, Birth Announcements, Photo Printing | Shutterfly. (n.d.). Photo Books, Holiday Cards, Photo Cards, Birth Announcements, Photo Printing | Shutterfly. Retrieved December 3, 2013, from Promotion Details. (n.d.). Photo Books, Holiday Cards, Photo Cards, Birth Announcements, Photo Printing. Retrieved December 3, 2013, from Savings Plans. (n.d.). Photo , Photo Plans, Annual Print Plans, and Pre-Paid Photo Plans. Retrieved December 3, 2013, from Search. (n.d.). Support Home. Retrieved December 3, 2013, from Share Sites | Welcome. (n.d.). Share Sites | Welcome. Retrieved December 3, 2013, from Shutterfly edit. (n.d.). Shutterfly. Retrieved December 3, 2013, from Shutterfly. (n.d.). YouTube. Retrieved December 3, 2013, from Shutterfly Mobile. (n.d.). iPhone and iPad Photo App, Mobile Photo Sharing Applications, Share iPhone Photos. Retrieved December 3, 2013, from Special Offers. (n.d.). Shutterfly , Shutterfly Coupons, Shutterfly Discounts and Promo Codes. Retrieved December 3, 2013, from TV has never been better.. (n.d.). Roku Streaming Player. Retrieved December 3, 2013, from Who we are. (n.d.). Shutterfly, Inc.. Retrieved December 3, 2013, from

Monday, April 6, 2020

Professional Ethics free essay sample

The Ethical Question is the question of the morality of free and responsible human conduct. It is the question of right, of wrong, and of duty, in mans conscious and deliberate activity. The department of philosophy which answers this question is called Moral Philosophy or Ethics. This science grows out of the rest of philosophy. For when we have a philosophical grasp of the possibility of achieving certitude and of right formulas for reasoning out truth, then we are necessarily aware of the need of the true program for right human living. General Ethics Topics.Ends of Human Acts; c. Norms of Human Acts; d. Morality of Human Acts; e. Properties and Consequences of Human Acts. a) Human Acts The term human act has a fixed technical meaning. It means an act (thought, word, deed, desire, omission) performed by a human being when he is responsible; when he knows what he is doing and wills to do it. We will write a custom essay sample on Professional Ethics or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page An act is perfectly human when it is done with full knowledge and full consent of the will, and with full and unhampered freedom of choice. If the act is hampered in any way, it is less perfectly human; if it is done without knowledge or consent it is not a human act at all.An act done by a human being but without knowledge and consent is called an act of a person but not a human act. In the terminology of classical realistic philosophy, a human act is actus humanus; an act of a person is actus hominis. The essential elements of a human act are three: knowledge, freedom, actual choice. (1) Knowledge: A person is not responsible for an act done in ignorance, unless the ignorance is the persons own fault, and is therefore willed (vincible ignorance), in which case he has knowledge that he is in ignorance and ought to dispel it. Thus, in one way or another, knowledge is necessary for responsible human activity. 2) Freedom: A person is not responsible for an act over which he has no control, unless he deliberately surrenders such control by running into conditions and circumstances which rob him of liberty. Thus, in one way or another, freedom is necessary for every human act. (3) Actual choice or voluntariness: A person is not responsible for an act which he does not will, unless he wills to give up his self-control (as a man does, for instance, in allowing himself to be hypnotized, or by deliberately becoming intoxicated). Thus, in one way or another, voluntariness or actual choice enters into every human act.Now, a human act is a willed act. It proceeds from the will, following the knowledge and judgment of the mind or intellect. Since what refers to the freewill is usually described as moral, a human act is a moral act. Since the will is free, a human act is a free act. A human act comes from the will directly or indirectly. When the act itself is the choice of the will, it comes directly from the will and is said to be willed in se or in itself. When the act comes indirectly from the will, inasmuch as the will chooses rather what causes or occasions the act than the act itself, it is said to be willed in its cause or in causa.Thus a man who wills to become intoxicated, wills it directly or in se; a man who does not wish to become intoxicated, but who seeks entertainment where, as experience tells him, he is almost sure to become intoxicated, wills the intoxication indirectly or in causa. This distinction of direct and indirect willing (or direct and indirect voluntariness) raises a notable issue, and we have here two of the most important principles (that is, fundamental guiding truths) in all ethics. These are: (1) The Principle of Indirect Voluntariness: A person is responsible for the evil effect of a cause directly willed when three conditions are met: hen he can readily foresee the evil effect, at least in a general way; when he is free to refrain from doing what causes the evil effect; and when he is bound to refrain from doing what causes the evil effect. But is the agent (that is, the doer of an act) not always bound to avoid what causes an evil effect? Is not the fact that the effect is evil a sufficient reason for rendering the act which leads to it unlawful? Not always, for sometimes the act has two effects, one good and one evil. In this case, the following principle applies.Sound human reason vindicates the value and trustworthiness of these two leading ethical principles. The basic law of morals, called the natural law, is summed up in this plain mandate of reason: We must do good; we must avoid evil. And, developing the second point, that is, the avoidance of evil, we have this basic rational principle: We must never do what is evil, even though good may be looked for and intended as a result of it. Human acts are modified, that is, affected, and made less perfectly human, by anything that hampers or hinders any of the three essentials of human action: knowledge, freedom, voluntariness.Chief of the modifiers of human acts are these: (1) Ignorance. Ignorance that may be overcome by due diligence is called vincible ignorance or culpable ignorance; ignorance that cannot be expelled by due diligence is called invincible ignorance or inculpable ignorance. The reasoned ethical principle on this point is: Invincible ignorance destroys voluntariness and relieves the agent of responsibility; vincible ignorance lessens but does not remove voluntariness and responsibility. (2) Concupiscence.By concupiscence we mean any of the g human impulses or tendencies technically called the passions. These are: love, hatred, grief, desire, aversion, hope, despair, courage, fear, anger. When concupiscence sweeps upon a person without his intending it, it is called antecedent concupiscence; when a person wills it (as in the case of a man who nurses his injuries, or stirs himself to revenge, or who allows a suddenly envisioned obscene image to remain in his mind or before his eyes) it is called consequent concupiscence.The ethical principle here is: Antecedent concupiscence lessens voluntariness and responsibility but does not take them away; consequent concupiscence does not lessen voluntariness and responsibility. Of all the types of concupiscence which influence human acts, fear has a peculiar significance, and we have a special reasoned principle for it: An act done from a motive of fear is simply voluntary; the agent is responsible for it, even though he would not do it were he not under the sway of fear. Of course, if the fear is so great that it renders the agent insane at the moment of his act, he is incapable of a human act and is not responsible.Civil law m ake provisions for the nullifying of contracts made under the stress of fear (that is, of threat, or duress), for the common good requires that people be protected from the malice of unscrupulous persons who would not hesitate to enforce harmful bargains by fearsome means. (3) Violence. Coaction or violence is external force applied by a free cause (that is, by human beings) to compel a person to do something contrary to his will. The ethical principle with respect to violence is: An act owing to violence to which due resistance is made, is not voluntary, and the agent is not responsible for it. 4) Habit. Habit is a readiness, born of repeated acts, for doing a certain thing. The ethical principle is: Habit does not take away voluntariness; acts done from habit are voluntary, at least in cause, as long as the habit is permitted to continue. (5) Fear. Fear is the shrinking of the appetite from some evil that is difficult to avoid. Actions taken on account of fear are voluntary and so are IMPUTABLE (we are responsible for them). Fear of some great evil may excuse people from immediate compliance to human law, but not in cases where this would involve some violation of the Natural Law.For example, lawyers, doctors and priests have a grave obligation to keep secrets told to them in confidence. b) Ends of Human Acts An end is a purpose or goal. It is that for which an act is performed. It is the final cause of an act. An end intended for itself is an ultimate end; an end intended as a measure or means of gaining a further end is an intermediate end. The first end (in order of attainment) is proximate; other ends are remote. An ultimate end is ultimate in a certain series of ends, or it is the crowning end of all human activity.The ultimate end of a series is called relatively ultimate; the crowning end of all human activity is called absolutely ultimate. A young man entering medical school has, as proximate and intermediate ends, the passing of his exams, and the advance from the first to the second class; more remote ends are the exams and classes further on; the ultimate end of the whole series of his studies and efforts is the status of a physician. But this end is relatively ultimate, not absolutely so. Why does he wish to be a physician? Perhaps to do good and to have an honorable means of livelihood.But why does he want this? For a full life, a rounded satisfaction in his earthly existence? But why does he want these things? Inevitably, in view of a still further end. For all human ends are directed, in last analysis, to an all-sufficing absolutely ultimate end. This is the completely satisfying end or good; it is the Supreme and Infinite Good; it is the Summum Bonum; and, for theists, it is God. An end as a thing desired or intended is called objective. The satisfaction looked for in the attainment and possession of the objective end, is the subjective end.Man, in every human act, strives for the possession of good (for end and good are synonymous), and for infinite good or God. This is the absolutely ultimate objective end of all human activity. And man strives for the infinite good as that which will boundlessly satisfy; he looks for complete beatitude or complete happiness in the attainment and possession of God. This is the absolutely ultimate subjective end of all human activity. Saint and sinner alike are striving towards God. The Saint is striving in the right direction, and the sinner in the wrong direction.But it is the one Goal they are after, that is, the full, everlasting, satisfaction of all desire. The good man in his good human acts and the evil man in his evil human acts are like two men digging for diamonds; the one digs in a diamond mine, the other perversely digs in a filthy heap of rubbish; the one works where diamonds are to be found, the others work is hopeless of success. But it is to find diamonds that both are working. Man necessarily (and not freely) intends or wills the supreme and absolute end of all human acts. Man freely (and not necessarily) chooses the means that is, intermediate ends) by which he expects, wisely or perversely, to attain that end. c) Norms of Human Acts A norm is a rule; it is the measure of a thing. The norm of human acts is the rule which shows whether they measure up to what they should be, and indicates the duty of bringing them up to full standard of what they ought to be. The norms of human acts are law and conscience. More precisely, the one norm of human acts is law applied by conscience. Law is an ordinance of reason promulgated for the common good by one who has charge of society.Fundamentally, law is an ordinance of Infinite Reason for all mankind and for every creature. In this sense, law means the Eternal Law which is Gods plan and providence for the universe. Inasmuch as this law is knowable by a normal mind which reasons to it from the facts of experience, the Eternal Law is called the natural law. For when a person ceases to be a baby and becomes responsible, this is owing to the fact that he recognizes the following truth: There is such a thing as good; there is such a thing as evil; I have a duty to avoid evil and to do good. A child of ten that knew no distinction between lies and truth, theft and honesty, obedience and disobedience, would rightly be classed as an imbecile. Indeed, we say that a person comes to the use of reason when he begins to have a practical grasp of three things: good, evil, duty. In other words, reason makes evident the basic prescriptions of the natural law. The natural law is general. But man needs, in addition to general prescriptions for conduct, special determinations of the law such as, for instance, the enactments of the State in civil and criminal laws. Law is for the common good.Special regulations for individuals or groups are called precepts. A precept is like a law inasmuch as it is a regulation or an ordering unto good. A precept is unlike a law inasmuch as it is rather for private than for common good. In human laws and precepts, a further distinction is made. A law is territorial; it binds in a certain place and not in other places; a precept is personal, and it binds the person subject to it wherever he may be. Again, a law endures even though the actual persons who formulated and promulgated it are dead and gone; a precept ends with the death (or removal from office) of the preceptor. True law is a liberating force, not an enslaving one. A true law may be compared to a true map. The map does not enslave the traveler, but enables him to make his journey without hindrance or mishap. The man who says he will not be enslaved by maps, is a prey to ignorance, and is thus truly enslaved; the man who uses the map is liberated from the enslavement of ignorance and is freed to make the journey. For liberty does not include in its essence the ability to do wrong. This ability is a sad condition of earthly human existence; it is not a part of liberty itself.God can do no wrong, yet God is infinitely free. The souls in heaven can no longer sin, and yet they have not lost freedom, but have used freedom and brought it to its crowning perfection. Mans freedom is freedom of the choice of means to his ultimate end; when the end is attained, means are no longer needed, and the freedom which won to success is forever crowned in full perfection. Law that is set down in recorded enactments is called positive law. The moral law as knowable to sound human reason (that is, the Eternal Law as so knowable) is called, as we have seen, the natural law.A law is called moral if it binds under guilt. It is called penal if it binds under penalty (such as a fine). It is called mixed if it binds under both guilt and penalty. It is a debated question among ethicians whether there can be a law that is entirely and exclusively penal. All true laws have sanctions, that is, inducements (of reward or punishment prescribed) sufficient to make those bound by them obedient to their prescriptions. Human positive law usually has the sanction of penalty, not of special reward. In individual human acts, law is applied by conscience.Conscience is the practical judgment of human reason upon an act as good, and hence permissible or obligatory, or as evil, and hence to be avoided. Conscience is the reasoned judgment of the mind. It is no instinct, no sentiment, no prejudice born of custom or what moderns call mores; it is no still small voice; it is no little spark of celestial fire. It is the pronouncement of reason, the reason with which we work out a problem in mathematics, only, to be called conscience it must be the working out of a judgment or pronouncement in the domain of morals, of duty.When the judgment of conscience squares with facts, conscience is called correct or true. When the conscience-judgment is out of line with facts, conscience is called false. When the conscience-judgment is wholly assured and unhesitant, conscience is called certain. When the conscience judgment is hesitant, and amounts to no more than opinion, conscience is called doubtful. Doubt is speculative when it is a lack of certainty about what is true; it is practical when it is a lack of certainty about what is to be done.A doubt is positive when the mind hesitates between two opposites because there seems good reason for each; it is negative when the mind hesitates because there seems no good reason on either side. A most important reasoned principle is the following: It is never lawful to act while in a state of positive practical doubt. The doubt must be dispelled and replaced by at least moral certitude. To dispel positive practical doubt, a person must use the direct method of study, inquiry, finding all the facts.If this method prove unsuccessful, or if it cannot be applied, then the indirect method (called the appeal to the reflex principle) must be employed. This means that the person in doubt about the licitness or illicitness of an act can make sure that he is not bound by applying the reflex principle: A law that is of doubtful application cannot beget a certain obligation. In this case, certitude is attained, not of the case itself, but of the persons freedom from obligation: thus, it is an indirect certitude. Out of the use of the reflex principle just mentioned, emerges the theory called Probabilism. It amounts to this : If there exists a solidly probable opinion against the applicability of a law in a given case, that law is of doubtful applicability. In other words, it is a doubtful law. But a doubtful law cannot beget a certain obligation. Therefore, if there exists a solidly probable opinion against the applicability of a law in a given case, there is no obligation. The moral system of Probabilism is of value only when there is question of the lawfulness or unlawfulness of an act; it has no place when the question is one of the validity or invalidity of contract.Further, the phrase a solidly probable opinion does not mean a strong inclination or liking on the part of the agent; it means a reasoned opinion, especially such as is defended by men of known learning and prudence. Probabilism, or the application of the reflex principle, a doubtful law does not bind, cannot be employed except in the failure or the inapplicability of the direct method of solving a doubt. Nor can it be used when there is question of a clear and definite end to be achieved. d) Morality of Human Acts Morality is the relation of human acts to the norm or rule of what they ought to be.As we have seen, the norm of human acts is law applied by conscience. And the basic law is the Eternal Law, especially as this is knowable by sound human reason (it is then called the natural law). The squaring up of free and responsible human conduct with law as applied by conscience is the morality of human acts; the lack of such agreement of human acts with their norm is immorality. But, as we have indicated, morality is generally used to signify the relation (whether of agreement or disagreement) of human acts to their norm or rule. Thus we speak of morally good acts and of morally bad acts. A human act considered as such, as an act, as a deed performed, stands in agreement or out of agreement with the norm of what it ought to be. Thus it has objective morality. Many mistaken people of our day, especially those of university training, are fond of talking as though a human act took all its morality from the intention of the agent, or from his viewpoint. They are full of expressions such as, As I see it , To my mind . . . , I dont look at it in that way . . . , Its all in the point of view . . . etc. Now, there is an immense field for human opinion.Where certitude cannot be had, opinion is the best man can achieve. But in matters of essential morals, certitude can be had (as we have seen, by direct method, or, this failing, by the reflex method). Hence the lawfulness or unlawfulness of an act, its morality, in short, is never a matter of opinion, viewpoint, prejudice, or preference. It is a matter of fact. It is an objective thing. Human acts have objective morality. A person blamelessly mistaken about the objective morality of an act is exempt (by reason of invincible ignorance) from responsibility for such act.Thus, a person who is invincibly ignorant of the fact that a lie is always unlawful, and who is convinced with full certitude that in certain circumstances a lie is permissible, is not guilty of formal falsehood for telling such a lie. But this does not mean that the objective morality of a lie is a fiction or an illusion; it does not mean that the morality of an act depends on the agents convictions. The lie is objectively evil and remains so. Only, in the case mentioned, invincible ignorance excuses the agent from responsibility for it. And so much the worse for the agent, for ignorance is always a blight and a burden. Some acts have their objective morality in themselves by reason of their nature. Murder, lying, calumny, injustice, are examples of acts intrinsically evil. Respect for life, truthfulness, charity, justice, are examples of acts intrinsically good. Other human acts have their objective morality by reason of positive law, which is an extrinsic determinant. Thus, hunting out of season, violating the speed laws, are acts objectively but extrinsically evil.Obeying civil ordinances, performing the duty of true citizens as expressed by law, are, in the main, acts objectively but extrinsically good. The basic virtue of being a good citizen, however, is intrinsically good. In the concrete, as a deed done, every human act has true objective morality. But when a human act is considered in the abstract, in general, and not as a concrete deed performed, it is sometimes found to be indifferent, and neither good nor bad. In other words, some human acts are not intrinsically good or intrinsically evil in themselves as abstractly considered.But in their actual performing, they take on morality (and truly objective morality) from the circumstances. For the determinants of morality are the act performed and the circumstances of the act performed. The act performed is technically known as the object. Human acts that have intrinsic morality are good or evil by reason of the object, that is the act itself. Such acts, if evil, are never permissible. If good, and if circumstances do not vitiate them, they are lawful. Some of them are not capable of being vitiated by circumstances, and these are always lawful, and also of obligation.Such, for example, is the duty of professing the truth, of working justice to all men. The circumstances of an act performed determine its morality when the object does not do so. Circumstances are various, but the most important are those of person, of the intensity of the act, of place, of time, of helping influences in the act, of manner, and of intention. The last named (that is intention of the agent or doer) is the most notable circumstance. Of circumstances in general, the ethical principles are these: an indifferent act is made good or evil by circumstances; good act may be made evil by circumstances but an evil act cannot be made good by circumstances; an act is made better or worse by circumstances; a circumstance gravely evil ruins the morality of the whole act and makes it evil; a circumstance slightly evil, which is not the entire motive of a good act, does not utterly destroy its goodness. Of intention in special, the ethical principles are these: a good act done for a good intention has an added goodness from the intention, and a bad act for a bad intention has an added evil from the intention; And therefore he tends to act in the same way again. In a word, human acts tend to follow patterns called habits. By habit in the present instance we mean an operative habit, a habit of acting. Such a habit is an inclination, born of frequently repeated action, for acting in a certain way. An operative habit that is morally good is called a virtue. An operative habit that is morally bad is called a vice. Virtues and vices are the consequences of human acts. The chief-virtues are prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance.These are called the cardinal virtues (from the Latin cardo, stem cardin-, a hinge) because all other virtues depend on them as a door depends on its hinges. Vice, or habit of evil doing, is a habitual defect, a habitual failure to measure up to the norm of right conduct and of the virtues. A single bad act is a sin, but not a vice. Vice is the habit of sin. It stands opposed to virtue either by defect or by excess, but in either case it is a habitual failure (a negative thing) to measure up to the standard of what a human act ought to be. Professional Ethics free essay sample Nurses represent the largest group of health care professionals† (Sarikonda-Woitas Robinson, 2002, p. 72). Professional nurses are accountable for his or her ethical conduct. Medical professionals have a legal and ethical responsibility to deliver safe, quality care taking into account the patients’ individual needs and allowing self-determination. The nursing codes of ethics are formal statements guiding professional conduct and informing the public of the nursing professions commitment and beliefs. This nursing code of ethics along with specific state law nurse practice acts, guide nurses in practicing safely within legal and ethical boundaries. Wacker Guido (2006) stated, â€Å"Ethics, like values, is individualistic† (p. 2). Legal and Ethical Relationships Wacker Guido (2006) stated, â€Å"The disciplines of law and professional nursing have been officially integrated since the first mandatory nurse practice act was passed by the New York legislature in 1938† (p. 15). Laws are created to govern the public. According to Dictionary. com (n. d. ), â€Å"the legal system interprets and enforces laws† (legal system). We will write a custom essay sample on Professional Ethics or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page When a person violates a law his or her freedom is at risk and can be taken from him or her. Wacker Guido (2006) stated, â€Å"Created by individuals and capable of being changed, the legal system is a general foundation that gives continuing guidance to health care providers, regardless of their personal views and value system† (p. 3). Ethics are based on a framework of values, philosophies and can be interpreted differently by individuals (Wacker Guido, 2006). Ethics can be defined as beliefs, standards, or morals accepted and agreed upon by a specific group. The American Nursing Association (2001) website code of ethics with interpretive statements advises that each individual nurse is responsible for his or her own individual practice. It would not be outside the realm of consideration that he or she may have a legal action, that is held to be unethical and vice versa that an ethical action would be held to be illegal. With this, dilemmas arise and require the nurse to seek assistance from a board of ethics or simply make their decision with the full knowledge that he or she will be held accountable for their decisions. As the scope of professional nursing practice becomes more complex, the individual nurse must exercise judgment in accepting responsibilities, seeking consultation, and assigning activities to others who implement nursing services† (Milton, 2008, p. 301). Personal and Professional Values I consider my values to be closely linked with my morals. I use my values and morals to personally gauge what I consider right fr om wrong. I believe that my values were formed early on in my childhood. I was raised by a multi-viewed religious family. I believe this allowed me to understand that while each person held a strong conviction, it was not necessarily aligned exactly with my own. It was permissible in my family to entertain other’s beliefs without fully incorporating them into my own value and belief system. I did not realize how strongly my own beliefs were until I married into a devout Catholic family. I took the educational courses to convert but when it came time to agree with their basic principles with the priest, I could not do it. That surprised many of my friends who told me to say I did and be done with it. They asked me what the big deal was. The priest however had a differing view and agreed with my final decision. If I could not accept their beliefs, I would not pay lip service to it for a ceremony. My husband agreed and though his family did not like it, we were married outside the Catholic Church. I believe much the same way with my professional ethics, when I took the Nightingale Pledge I meant every word and I review it as well as the American Nursing Association code of ethics and my state nurse practice acts at least once a year. Professional ethics is my framework for functioning in my professional role. It is important that I remember that health care values can change and this could impact mine and others professional ethics. When I worked in the hospital, I used to attend the ethical boards when open and accessible. It was always interesting to hear the rationale behind some of the decisions made and how at times the legal and ethical thoughts were not congruent. Ethical Theories and Principles According to Wacker Guido (2006), there are a number of ethical theories that have evolved over time. There are two basic distinctions in ethical issues called nonnormative and normative ethics. Normative ethics are concerned with analyzing the meaning, justification, and inferences whereas nonnormative are concerned with how choice of action is related to everyday life (Wacker Guido, 2006). Wacker Guido (2006) stated, â€Å"Ethical principles actually control professional decision making much more than do ethical theories† (p. 5). Deontological This theory holds that as a person facing ethical dilemmas, the person should maintain their commitments and fulfill his or her duties. It means not breaking promises made and following all laws, rules, and adhering to policies set. Accountability is important in this theory, and it is classified as non-consequential because doing one’s duty is more important than outcomes (Wacker Guido, 2006). I see this applying in my personal practice as a community nurse when I stop and offer assistance at a crash. I feel it is my duty to offer assistance when I am able. I am held accountable that I do not offer assistance outside my nurse practice act however; the Good Samaritan law will protect me regardless of outcomes. My intention of my action outweighs any consequences that may occur. I have many nurse friends who refuse to offer assistance worried of being sued. I know my state laws and that guides my actions. Teleological This theory is also called utilitarianism (Wacker Guido, 2006). This theory holds that the outcomes or whether the action was beneficial will determine whether or not it was ethical. This theory does not take into account the action itself but is concerned with the outcomes of the action. I tried to find an example of where I performed an act strictly because of the consequences regardless of whether or not the action was ethical or legal and I was somewhat at a loss. I at one time refused to release patient information to a police officer regarding a patient’s rape though it could have led to the perpetrator’s arrest, the patient did not wish her information released. â€Å"Under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 there is no absolute requirement for healthcare staff to disclose or not to disclose information to the police† (Beech, 2007, p. 5). Principalism Principalism is a theory that combines theories and attempts to answer ethical issues and dilemmas by application of multiple theories. Wacker Guido (2006) stated, â€Å"Because most nurses do not ascribe to either deontology or teleology exclusively, but to a combination of the two theories, principalism is growing in popularity† (p. 5). Ethical Principles There are seven ethica l principles that can be applied in every day practice. The first is autonomy. This ensures the patient’s right to self-determination. Though it is not an absolute right in some rare instances, it allows for the patient to decide against medical advice in keeping with his or her own beliefs. I have treated many Jehovah Witnesses throughout my career and have seen them decline blood products sometimes resulting in his or her death. It is their right to make that decision and was made with full knowledge of the possible outcomes of their decision. The second principle is beneficence and nonmaleficence. I see these tied hand in hand. It is my job to do well and to do no harm. There are occasions when the good outweighs possible harm, and â€Å"dual effect† must be considered. I have seen this done in hospice when to alleviate pain may impair respiratory function. The outcome is not to cause death but to alleviate suffering. The third is veracity. This principle holds that truth is to be told and not to make promises that cannot be guaranteed (Wacker Guido, 2006). I will not lie to a patient. I have been asked my many family members throughout my career not to tell the truth to a patient. If the patient is of age and in charge of their own decisions and care, I will not lie to my patients. The fourth is paternalism. This is a principle that I have a hard time with. It allows for the making of decisions for others. I believe that I can assist my patients by offering him or her the education and expected outcomes of treatment and refusal of treatment but I will not tell a patient what I would do in his or her circumstances. In truth, I have told many patients’ I do not know what I would do in their circumstances because I have never been in their particular situation. The adage of walk a mile in my shoes always comes to mind when I am asked this question. The fifth is justice. I embrace this principle with open arms. I do believe that everyone should be treated fairly and equally. I have had this tested when I have had to treat a rapist brought in by the local prison. I have my own baggage that I carry, and it took some self-reflection but I performed as I would expect anyone else in that situation that was a professional. The sixth and last is respect for others. Wacker Guido (2006) stated, â€Å"seen by many as the highest principle, incorporates all other principles† (P. 7). It is my belief that in doing this we treat others as we wish to be treated. It is also the first principle in the American Nurses Associations code of ethics (Wacker Guido, 2006). I use this principle every day. I am not perfect but I want to think that I try to, and succeed on a more rather than less scale to treat others in my personal and professional lives with as much respect as I expect to be treated with. I allow patient’s his or her right to choose and I can entertain your ideas without necessarily agreeing with him and her. Conclusion Nurses and all healthcare professionals come with their own unique personal values and interpretation of ethics. Ethical and legal issues as well as their resulting dilemmas are an integral part of nursing and can result in some interesting challenges. â€Å"Articulating and acting upon professional values with accountability is essential for the discipline of nursing in order to fortify and enhance its integrity and trust with global communities â€Å"(Milton, 2008, p. 303). As a nurse, I strive to assist my patients to make informed autonomous decisions regarding their healthcare. Each healthcare discipline must question, challenge, and reflect upon its practices in order to hold one another accountable so that the healthcare recipients’ human dignity, freedom, and personal autonomy to choose and make healthcare decisions may be enhanced†.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

The History of the Telescope and Binoculars

The History of the Telescope and Binoculars Phoenicians cooking on sand first discovered glass around 3500 BCE, but it took another 5,000 years or so before glass was shaped into a lens to create the first telescope. Hans Lippershey of Holland is often credited with the invention sometime in the 16th century. He almost certainly wasn’t the first to make one, but he was the first to make the new device widely known. Galileo’s Telescope The telescope was introduced to astronomy in 1609 by the great Italian scientist Galileo Galilei   the  first man to see the craters on the moon. He went on to discover sunspots, the four large moons of Jupiter and the rings of Saturn. His telescope was similar to opera glasses. It used an arrangement of glass lenses to magnify objects. This provided up to 30 times magnification and a narrow field of view, so  Galileo could see no more than a quarter of the moons face without repositioning his telescope. Sir Isaac Newton’s Design Sir Isaac Newton  introduced a new concept in telescope design in 1704. Instead of glass lenses, he used a curved mirror to gather light and reflect it back to a point of focus. This reflecting mirror acted like a light-collecting bucket the bigger the bucket, the more light it could collect. Improvements to the First Designs   The Short telescope was created by Scottish optician and astronomer James Short in 1740. It was the first perfect parabolic, elliptic, distortionless mirror ideal for reflecting telescopes. James Short built over 1,360 telescopes.   The reflector telescope that Newton designed opened the door to magnifying objects millions of times, far beyond what could ever be achieved with a lens, but others tinkered with his invention over the years, trying to improve it. Newton’s fundamental principle of using a single curved mirror to gather in light remained the same, but ultimately, the size of the reflecting mirror was increased from the six-inch mirror used by Newton to a 6-meter mirror 236 inches in diameter. The mirror was provided by the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia, which opened in 1974. Segmented Mirrors The idea of using a segmented mirror dates back to the 19th century, but experiments with it were few and small. Many astronomers doubted its viability. The Keck Telescope finally pushed technology forward and brought this innovate design into reality. The Introduction of Binoculars The binocular is an optical instrument consisting of two similar telescopes, one for each eye, mounted on a single frame. When Hans Lippershey first applied for a patent on his instrument in 1608, he was actually asked to build a binocular version. He reportedly did so late that year.   Box-shaped binocular terrestrial telescopes were produced in the second half of the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century by Cherubin d’Orleans in Paris, Pietro  Patroni in Milan and I.M. Dobler in Berlin. These were not successful because of their clumsy handling and poor quality. Credit for the first real  binocular telescope goes to J. P. Lemiere who devised one in 1825. The modern prism binocular began with Ignazio Porros 1854 Italian patent for a prism erecting system.

Friday, February 21, 2020

The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Investing In Real Estate Essay

The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Investing In Real Estate - Essay Example Is there such a thing like that? I believe there is. However, tantamount to the success of an individual in the field of investment are his or her invested efforts and generated knowledge. Today, there are many investments to choose from. The choice of one good investment is subjective or in a way, selective based on someone’s evaluative criteria. It is promising to invest in real estate, but it is still cannot be realized until someone learns to exert his or her efforts and critical analysis on related things, which are needed in order to successfully perpetuate in this kind of business. It takes extra effort to finally achieve the fruit of all endeavors. However, all exerted efforts are still subject to someone’s core skills. Just like any other investments, skills are needed to be successful in real estate investment. It can be actually viewed this way. The value of land does not depreciate. The law of supply and demand can actually be applied into this. Considering that the world population is increasing year by year, people are looking for resources to survive. The demand for land will increase. Land on the other hand will become a scarce resource. The higher the demands for land resource while its quantity decreases, the higher the price will become. This is one of the reasons why investing in real estate seems a good idea that somebody can carry on. In addition, as population increases, many people will be looking for homes. For those who cannot afford to buy a piece of land, the most convenient way is to look for housing for rent or affordable apartments for lease. This definitely makes investment in real estate an area of choice since a strong demand for shelter is integral to the existence of humanity. Many people are trying to invest in real estate for as mentioned, it promises good opportunity. Like any other investment, real estate is